Tawangmangu, Karanganyar

Hangatnya suasana mentari pagi di Grojogan Sewu, Tawangmangu

Pagilaran, Batang

Jalan jalan di Kebun teh Pagilaran

Tawangmangu, Karanganyar

Pokoknya asik dah jalan jalan sekitar tw

Tawangmangu, Karanganyar

Segarnya gemercik air pancuran, Tawangmangu

Candi Cetho, Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar

Menyaksikan pemandangan dari depan pintu gerbang candi, sebuah panorama indah perkebunan teh

Candi Cetho, Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar

Menyambangi Candi Cetho, sebuah warisan bersejarah ditengah pegunungan elok nan indah

Candi Sukuh, Karanganyar

Memandang panorama sekitar Candi Sukuh

Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar

Menikmati segarnya udara Candi Cetho

Candi Cetho, Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar

Mengunjungi Candi Cetho, sebuah perjalanan menyusuri tempat bersejarah peninggalan manusia masa lalu

Pintu Gerbang Candi Cetho, Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar

Menatap langit di ketinggian, panorama indah Candi Cetho

Rabu, 28 Agustus 2013

JENIS KALIMAT PADA ARTIKEL ILMIAH BERBAHASA INGGRIS

 
JENIS KALIMAT PADA ARTIKEL ILMIAH BERBAHASA INGGRIS
Huda Kurnia Maulana, Kukuh Dwi Pamuji dan Novita Octaviany
PRODI PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS, FKIP UNS
JL. IR. SUTAMI NO.36 A SURAKARTA
email : hudamaulana88@yahoo.com


       Based on the number of full predications, sentences are generally divided into four classifications including simple sentence, complex sentence, compound sentence, and compound–complex sentence. They are distinguished by the number and kind of clauses within a sentence. A clause is a full predications that contains a subject and predicate in the form of transitive or intransitive verb.  There are two types of clauses, independent and dependent. Independent clause is a clause that can stand alone as a sentence and express complete thought  in intactly way, whereas dependent clause is a clause that can not stand alone as a sentence and has a beginning word that makes the predication needs independent clause for completing this clause. The combination of the two clauses, independent and dependent, determine whether the types of sentence is simple sentence, complex sentence, compound sentence, or compound – complex sentence. This types of sentences are used in academic writing to express the idea of writers. Our research is aimed to know and analyze the kinds of sentence are used in the academic writing and its proportion in that article. In order to achieve the goal of research, we took an article journal entitled “English for Specific Purposes in the EFL Context: A Survey of Student and Faculty Perceptions” by Chia-hsiu Tsao as an object to be analyzed. Afterwards, we counted each type of sentence which are constructed in that article.  The result of the analysis revealed that 183 sentences  in this article are stated in the form of simple sentence, complex sentence, compound sentence, or compound – complex sentence.
 
Keywords : Academic Writing, Simple Sentence, Complex Sentence,   Compound Sentence, dan Compound – Complex Sentence.

     Istilah kalimat berasal dari Bahasa Latin sentential, yang secara literal berarti pendapat atau perasaan. Dalam konteks gramatika, istilah ini terfokus kepada ucapan yang mengungkapkan perasaan atau pendapat. Dalam kaitan dengan fokus ini, menurut Verspoor dan Sauter (2000:33), kalimat adalah unit bicara yang terdiri dari kata atau kelompok kata yang secara sintaksis berkaitan, yang mengungkapkan pernyataan, pertanyaan, pengharapan atau perintah . Dalam penulisannya, kalimat biasanya dimulai dengan huruf kapital dan berakhir dengan tanda titik, tanda tanya atau tanda seru.
Fabb (2005: 40), dalam bukunya berjudul ‘Sentence Structure menyatakan bahwa kalimat adalah representasi dari ‘eventuality’. Sebuah kalimat merepresentasikan sebuah kejadian atau peristiwa yang mungkin terjadi. Kalimat dapat menggambarkan sebuah peristiwa dengan cara memisahkan tipe kejadian satu dengan lainnya, dari sesuatu yang abstrak menjadi hal yang nyata yang termasuk dalam eventuality.
  Terdapat beberapa sudut pandang dalam mengkategorikan kalimat. Frank, (1972:220) mengklasifikasikan kalimat berdasarkan tipe dan jumlah full predication yang ada pada kalimat tersebut. Dari segi tipe, kalimat bisa dibedakan menjadi kalimat tanya, kalimat perintah dan kalimat seru; sedangkan dari segi jumlah full predication, kalimat dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi empat varian yaitu simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence dan compound-complex sentence. Dalam penelitian ini, peneliti hanya  memfokuskan objek kajiannya berdasarkan cara yang kedua yaitu menentukan jenis kalimat berdasarkan jumlah full predication-nya.
     Seperti yang telah dijelaskan di diatas, jenis kalimat dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan jumlah full predication-nya. Lebih lanjut, Frank menjabarkan klasifikasi ini berdasarkan pada jumlah dan jenis klausa yang terdapat dalam kalimat. Klausa dapat diartikan sama dengan kalimat, yaitu predikasi utuh yang berisi subyek dan predikat dengan kata kerja yang terbatas. Terdapat dua jenis klausa, yaitu klausa independen dan dependen. Klausa independen adalah predikasi penuh yang dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat, sedangkan klausa dependen mempunyai kata awal atau pengantar khusus (subordinate conjunction) yang membuat predikat bergantung pada klausa independen (Frank, 1972:222 ).
       Untuk selanjutnya, klausa independen dinamakan sebagai induk kalimat, sedangkan klausa dependen disebut sebagai anak kalimat. Induk kalimat adalah  kalimat lengkap yang dapat berdiri sendiri, terdiri dari subjek utama dan kata kerja    (Azar, 1999:267). Induk kalimat mengungkapkan gagasan atau pemikiran secara utuh, tidak perlu mendapatkan keterangan ataupun penjelasan dari kalimat lain. Anak kalimat adalah kalimat yang tidak dapat berdiri sendiri dan harus mendapatkan penjelasan dari kalimat lain (induk kalimat) agar kalimat tersebut menjadi utuh dan dapat mengungkapkan gagasan dalam satu kesatuan pemikiran yang lengkap (complete thought).
       Dari kombinasi induk-anak kalimat ini, kalimat dapat dibedakan menjadi empat tipe (Robitaille dan Connely, 2006:281) yaitu :
1.         Simple Sentence
Simple Sentence adalah kalimat yang hanya mempunyai satu induk kalimat. Swick (2009: 1) menerangkan bahwa simple sentence adalah  kalimat pernyataan yang terdiri dari subjek dan predikat. Kata kerja pada predikat  dikonjugasikan secara tepat untuk menjelaskan bentuk waktu yang spesifik.
Contoh:
Jacob walked to the store

2.         Compound Sentence
       Compound Sentence adalah kalimat yang mengandung dua atau lebih induk kalimat yang dihubungkan oleh koma dan coordinating conjunction, titik koma atau titik koma dan conjunctive adverb. coordinating conjunction adalah kata hubung yang paling banyak digunakan pada compound sentence (Swick, 2009: 40).

Penggunaan coordinating conjunction pada subject (noun dan pronoun) dapat mempengaruhi penggunaan predicate yang dibutuhkan. Bila dua noun atau pronoun digabungkan menggunakan coordinating conjunctionand, mereka membutuhkan plural verb; sedangkan bila digabung dengan coordinating conjunctionor’ atau ‘nor’, maka dibutuhkan singular verb yang mengacu pada subject terdekat (Writing Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day, 2005: 101)
         Contoh:
Jacob walked to the store, but he got a ride home
Jacob walked to the store; he got ride home
Jacob walked to the store; however, he got a ride home

1.         Complex Sentence
       Complex Sentence yaitu kalimat yang mengandung sebuah induk kalimat dan satu atau lebih anak kalimat.  
  Complex Sentence merupakan gabungan kalimat yang mengungkapkan hubungan yang spesifik antara dua situasi dalam dua (atau lebih) klausa. (Diessel, 2004: 41)
Contoh:
Although Jacob walked to the store, he got a ride home
Jacob walked to the store although he got a ride home.
 
2.         Compound-Complex Sentence
Compound-Complex Sentence yaitu kalimat yang mengandung dua atau lebih induk kalimat dan satu atau lebih anak kalimat.
Contoh:
Although Jacob walked to the store, he got a ride home, so he wasn’t late for dinner.
 
     Pada dasarnya, kalimat digunakan untuk mengekspresikan ide, gagasan, pemikiran, perasaan, pengharapan dan sebagainya. Ekspresi tersebut dapat dituangkan baik dalam bentuk oral maupun written communication. Dalam bentuk written communication, ide dan gagasan seringkali di komunikasikan dalam bentuk artikel. Setiap artikel mempunyai beberapa paragraf yang satu diantaranya merupakan paragraf  utama, kemudian dikembangkan menjadi satu artikel yang utuh dengan disertai kesimpulan di bagian akhirnya. Kesimpulan ini merupakan rangkuman dari keseluruhan isi dari artikel tersebut. Pada sebuah artikel, suatu gagasan dan pemikiran disusun dan disambungkan satu sama lain sehingga menjadi suatu gabungan paragraf yang padu (Brandon, 2010:193).   
Dalam bukunya yang berjudul ”Academic Writing”, Zemach dan Rumisek (2005:11) menjelaskan bahwa paragraf adalah sekumpulan kalimat yang membahas tentang satu topik ; secara berkaitan, kalimat-kalimat tersebut menjelaskan ide pokok penulis tentang topik tersebut. Dalam artikel ilmiah, jumlah paragraf berkisar antara lima sampai sepuluh, tetapi bisa lebih panjang atau pendek, tergantung pada topik yang sedang di bahas. Savage dan Mayer (2006 : 18 ) menyatakan bahwa paragraf dikatakan padu jika tiap-tiap kalimat yang menyusunnya dapat men’support’ kalimat topik (utama) paragraf tersebut. Jika kalimat-kalimat tersebut bukan merupakan ‘supporting sentences’, maka paragraf tersebut akan menjadi ‘rumpang’.
Berdasarkan komposisi klausa yang digunakan, kalimat  terdiri dari empat varian yaitu simple sentence, complex sentence, compound sentence  dan compound – complex sentence (Robitaille dan Connely, 2006:281). Seluruh jenis kalimat tersebut mempunyai kemungkinan untuk digunakan baik pada artikel akademik maupun non-akademik.  
 Idealnya, setiap artikel pasti berisi jenis-jenis kalimat tersebut; tetapi, apakah jenis-jenis kalimat tersebut digunakan semua atau tidak, ataukah hanya salah satu jenis kalimat saja yang digunakan, harus diteliti dengan menggunakan analisis yang mendetail pada teks tersebut. Bailey (2011:8) menyatakan bahwa simple sentence lebih mudah untuk dibaca dan dipahami, namun penggunaan complex sentence juga diperlukan dalam menyusun artikel ilmiah. Penulis harus jeli dan tepat sasaran dalam menyusun kalimat, serta menghindari penggunaan kalimat yang terlalu kompleks. Evans (1988:18) menjelaskan bahwa masalah utama pada kalimat yang terlalu kompleks (compound-complex sentences ) adalah terlalu banyak mengutarakan ide dalam satu kalimat, sehingga dapat membingungkan pembaca .
 Suatu artikel dalam bahasa inggris bisa saja hanya memiliki salah satu jenis kalimat, dua jenis kalimat, tiga jenis kalimat, atau mungkin kesemuanya. Penggunaan jenis kalimat simple sentence, complex sentence, compound sentence, dan compound – complex sentence sangat berkaitan oleh jenis teksnya, apakah berupa artikel akademik maupun non-akademik.
Academic writing adalah tulisan yang disusun untuk melaporkan hasil penelitian yang telah di lakukan peneliti, memberikan jawaban terhadap rumusan masalah yang telah didiberikan atau dipilih, serta mendiskusikan subjek yang menarik bagi peneliti. (Bailey, 2011:3). Lebih jauh, artikel akademik disusun guna memberikan kontribusi terhadap perkembangan teori dan penerapannya pada ilmu pengetahuan, yang dalam penyusunannya mengikuti kaidah-kaidah atau aturan-aturan baku yang telah disepakati. Dalam academic writing, penulis mengungkapkan ide, gagasan dan pemikirannya berdasarkan dengan fakta dan data yang diperoleh dari hasil penelitian sehingga teori yang dihasilkannya berupa grounded theory, yaitu teori yang dibangun berdasarkan experiment, tidak hanya didasarkan pada experience dan argument saja.
Jordan (1993) menyatakan bahwa ciri-ciri utama pada artikel ilmiah adalah keobjektifannya, dengan menanggalkan segala jenis istilah yang ‘personal’ dan tidak formal. Artikel ilmiah biasanya menggunakan istilah-istilah yang akademik atau ‘technical words’. Lebih jauh, artikel ilmiah selalu menggunakan referensi dari penulis terdahulu sebagai pijakannya dan menyertakan kutipan-kutipan tulisan tersebut dalam menyampaikan ide dan gagasannya. Disamping itu, ketepatan bahasa sangat diutamakan pada setiap konteks dan situasi. Contoh dari artikel ilmiah adalah jurnal, tesis, book reviews, materi seminar, dan annotated bibiliographies (Hartley, 2008).
Berbeda dengan artikel akademik yang dapat dikonseptualisasikan sebagai  jumping through hoops’ (Murray and Moore, 2006: 4), artikel non-akademik tidak dibangun berdasarkan penelitian dan analisis data. Artikel non-akademik dapat berupa argument, ide, persepsi, persuasi, serta gagasan-gagasan yang tidak disertai fakta-fakta yang diperoleh dari hasil penelitian. Artikel non-akademik cenderung mengungkapkan argumen tanpa experiment, sehingga data dan fakta yang valid seringkali diabaikan dalam penuliasan artikel tersebut.
Dari penjelasan tentang artikel akademik dan artikel non-akademik itu, dapat diketahui bahwa content dari kedua artikel tersebut pastilah berbeda. Lebih jauh, dapat diketahui bahwa penggunaan simple sentence, complex sentence, compound sentence, dan compound – complex sentence dan proporsinya dalam artikel akademik dan artikel non-akademik tidaklah sama. 
Berdasarkan latar belakang masalah di atas maka peneliti menyusun rumusan masalah :
1. Jenis-jenis kalimat apa saja yang digunakan dalam artikel ilmiah berbahasa Inggris ?
Pada rumusan masalah ini, akan dijabarkan jenis-jenis kalimat apa sajakah yang dipakai dalam artikel ilmiah berbahasa inggris.

to be continued

Minggu, 25 Agustus 2013

MEMAHAMI MAKNA PENDIDIKAN

MEMAHAMI MAKNA PENDIDIKAN

http://www.geraldnash.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/education2.jpg 
   
  Sudah berapa lamakah kita sekolah ? Apa yang sudah kita dapatkan dari proses pembelajaran di sekolah ? Pertanyaan tersebut kerap membayangi saya sebagai salah seorang pelajar yang masih menempuh pendidikan dan mengamati orang lain yang juga masih dan telah menyelesaikan pendidikan formalnya.
     Secara singkat, pendidikan adalah proses untuk mengubah orang dari yang sebelumnya tidak tahu menjadi tahu dan tidak baik menjadi baik.  Tetapi apakah sesingkat itu makna pendidikan ? 
    Secara eksplisit, kata mendidik seringkali terkaburkan oleh kata mengajar dikarenakan maknanya yang hampir sama. Padahal, dua kata tersebut tidak dapat disamakan secara identik, kata mengajar lebih condong pada mentransfer ilmu pengetahuan ataupun materi pembelajaran agar seorang memiliki pengetahuan tertentu sesuai yang diajarkan, sedangkan kata mendidik bermakna memberikan ilmu pengetahuan kepada peserta didik sekaligus juga membangun watak, perilaku dan kepribadian yang berbudaya.
     Lantas kepribadian seperti apakah yang dimaksud ?, Tentunya pertanyaan ini tidak bisa dijawab sekaligus dengan satu kacamata yang sama, setiap kultur mempunyai paradigma yang berbeda dalam menentukan suatu bentuk nilai dan norma. Suatu yang dianggap baik dalam suatu tempat tidaklah mesti sama dengan tempat yang lain, begitupun hal yang dianggap menyimpang. Tetapi perlu digarisbawahi dengan tebal, setiap manusia dimanapun berada pasti mempunyai moral dasar (elementary moral) yang tidaklah berbeda, sesuatu yang membedakan antara manusia dengan yang bukan.  Sudah bisakah ditarik kesimpulan ? 
   Seseorang dididik untuk mempunyai karakter yang manusiawi, yaitu manusia utuh yang memahami dan menginternalisasi moral dasar yang membedakan antara manusia dengan yang bukan, manusia yang beretika sesuai dengan apa yang dianggap baik dan benar, berdasarkan norma yang berlaku. Selain urusan moral dan perilaku, tentunya pendidikan tidak ditujukan melainkan agar seseorang mampu mengolah kemampuan serta mengembangkan pikirannya untuk mencapai suatu karya beradab yang memberi kemanfaatan bagi kehidupan.
-to be continued-


Jumat, 23 Agustus 2013

Shine - Richie Kotzen



 









I never really feel quite right and i dont know why
All i know is somethings wrong
Everytime i look at you you seem so alive
Tell me how do you do it walk me through it
Ill follow in every footstep
Maybe on your own you take a cautious step
Till you wanna give it up
But all i want is for you to shine...
Shine down on me... shine on this life thats burnin out



I say alot of things sometimes that dont come out right
And i act like i dont know why
I guess a reaction is all that im looking for
When you looked through me
You really knew me
Nobody ever looked before
Maybe on your own you take a cautions step
Till you wanna give it up but all i want is for you shine...
Shine down on me... shine on this life thats burnin out



So many shadows ive been walkin with
Ive been lost in the dark
So many voices that i talk to
But now your the one that i really depend on now





Maybe on your own you take a cautions step
Till you wanna give it up but all i want is for you shine...
Shine down on me... shine on this life thats burnin out 

MORE THAN WORDS - EXTREME


http://i1.sndcdn.com/artworks-000045129149-9b3d4p-original.jpg?5ffe3cd 






Saying I love you
Is not the words I want to hear from you
It's not that I want you
Not to say, but if you only knew
How easy it would be to show me how you feel
More than words is all you have to do to make it real
Then you wouldn't have to say that you love me
'Cause I'd already know

What would you do if my heart was torn in two
More than words to show you feel
That your love for me is real
What would you say if I took those words away
Then you couldn't make things new
Just by saying I love you

More than words

Now that I've tried to talk to you and make you understand
All you have to do is close your eyes
And just reach out your hands and touch me
Hold me close don't ever let me go
More than words is all I ever needed you to show
Then you wouldn't have to say that you love me
'Cause I'd already know

What would you do if my heart was torn in two
More than words to show you feel
That your love for me is real
What would you say if I took those words away
Then you couldn't make things new
Just by saying I love you

More than words


Lose Again - Richie Kotzen













I don't wanna talk about it, I just wanna dead
I don't wanna go back inside of what is in your head
You think you walk on higher ground,
but you're sinking instead
You can claim you never hurt me, but then you
never say you wrong

If lost back when, I have learned, I don't lose again
If I lost before, I make sure, I don't lose no more
But you know what it's like to lose again

I won't ever call you crazy, I don't say I'm sane
I don't wanna run back into it,
that won't shake the pain
You think you still got hold of me,
but you're reaching in vain
You won't learn this hurt works both ways, and so
you never wake up strong

If lost back when, I have learned, I don't lose again
If I lost before, I make sure, I don't lose no more
But you know what it's like to lose again
And don't you know you chose to lose again

Minggu, 28 Juli 2013

English Syntax

 


The knowledge of English syntax give me some new understanding in viewing the nature of language study and the idea of transformational grammar, as I explain in this following synthesis :
The structure of sentence is correct if it is established in right word order. Every single sentence consist of Nucleus and Its Modifier; Nucleus can be divided into to parts including Noun Phrase and Verb Phrase. Actually, this two kinds of phrase is the terms ( in transformational grammar) to refer and reflect a Subject and Predicate in completely way.
Noun and Verb Phrase is considered so far as the subject and predicate of sentence. Noun Phrase includes nominal (can be noun or pronoun) and usually be completed by some ‘accessories’ such as Determiner and Plural; Verb phrase consist of Auxiliary, a Main Verb and optional adverbials. In this case, the presence of Auxiliary is to reflect the tense of a sentence.
The book ‘Syntactic Structure’ give us brief explanation in studying English Syntax. --Customarily, linguistic description  on the syntactic level is formulated in terms of constituent analysis (parsing). We now ask what form of grammar is presupposed by description of this sort. We find that the new form of grammar is essentially more powerful than the finite state model rejected above, and that the associated concept of " linguistic level" is different in fundamental respects. As a simple example of the new form for grammars associated with constituent analysis, consider the following :
(13)      (i) Sentence      è NP + VP
            (ii) NP              è T + N
            (iii) VP             è Verb + NP
            (iv) T               è the
            (v) N                è man, ball, etc.
            (vi) Verb           è hit, took, etc
Suppose that we interpret each rule X è Y of (13) as the instruction "rewrite X as Y". We shall call (14) a derivation of the sentence "the man hit the ball." where the numbers at the right of each line of the derivation refer to the rule of the "grammar"    (13) used in constructing that line from the preceding line. (Chomsky, 2002:26)--
In organizing sentences, we need to know the rules underlying sentence formation. In studying lexical features of sentences, the rules is merely provided in the form of explaining the structural features of sentences ; slight elucidation of sentences meaning, no deep explanation about how can the whole of word combination establishing the meaning of sentences. The lexicon will only give meanings for the individual words.
The ‘universal’ rules that guide us to create English Sentences in correctly way is named as Grammar rules. It combine three ‘must need’ components including syntactic, semantic, and phonological component. The things that looks interesting is the ideal grammar not solely create all of the grammatically correct sentences, it also produce no ungrammatical ones.
Related to the transformational grammar, there are some transformations in English including negative, passive and question transformation. I understand, the fundamental purposes of studying this transformations is not to know how to establish and create all of this sentences in the form of negative, passive, and question. Rather, the study of this material is aimed to observe their ‘phenomenon’ in sentences building. I will not explain further in this paper; but, to be honest, I get slight understanding in this discussion.
I emphasize one of the sentence in the book ‘An Introductory Transformational Grammar’ p.77 that stated “ The central component of transformational grammars is syntax, which consist of two divisions : the phrase structure and the transformations”. Again, I recommend the book ‘Syntactic Structures’ to myself as a must read book in achieving good comprehension in the realm of linguistic studies especially English syntax. I dont think good learners of linguistic dont know the name of the writer of this book, Mr. Noam Chomsky--great linguist and philosopher. He explained the phrase structure and the transformations in completely detail way, see ‘Syntactic Structure’ p.26-33 and 61-84.
In this study, we also focus slight attention in compounding, deletion and pro forms. (Chapter ten,  ‘An Introductory Transformational Grammar’ p.83- p.90)
Compounding is the combination of two sentence which are connected by coordinating conjunction. Each sentence constructing compound sentence has different subject or verb, expressed two different idea or activity.
If the subject and verb are the same (one of them), and the coordinating conjuction only connected the object (noun) of the sentence, It is called as a simple sentence, not compound sentence.
In compound sentence, we may delete the subject or verb that is exactly the same. It is acceptable if the deletion will not affect the meaning or thoughts which are delivered.
For example: I am extremely curious in studying english syntax, and enjoy the discussion in the topic of compounding, deletion and pro forms.
We can delete the subject before the word enjoy (I), because it refer the same meaning to the subject in the first sentences. Elements deleted in this formation is certainly comprehended by the people who are listening or reading that sentences.
Then, we may also delete vague elements of NPs (without this elements, both speaker and listener can catch the idea which are delivered, and these unspecified information are usually not necessary).
For example :  The bread has been eaten ( by ... ).
                        The car was stolen ( by...).
                        My girlfriend’s car stop ( in ...... ).
Deletion, like other transformations, changes syntactic structures of sentences. (It is explained in the book entitled ‘An Introductory Transformational Grammar’ p.85-86 ).
Instead of deleting repeated words, we may subtitute a generalized word known as pro form. The main intent (fundamental purposes) of subtituting pro form is to avoid deleting repeated words by replacing the form which is basically the same. (It’s example can be found in the book entitled ‘An Introductory Transformational Grammar’ p.86-87)
One of the role of changing the extended sentence into the more simple one, without affecting its meaning and the ideas which are conveyed, is to avoid monotonous and stylistically awkward sentence. However, we must remember that the combination of the two different sentences, as a result of deriving the deep structures into surface structures, can (possible) make ambiguous meaning (although the sentences is formed in grammatically correctly way) (See the example in the book entitled ‘An Introductory Transformational Grammar’ p.89).
So, we must careful in making a new formation of the sentence by using compounding, deletion, and pro form to ensure that the alteration will not change the ‘origin’ meaning and the ideas conveyed are still the same or unwavering.
The last, I would personally give somecomments about the way to bolster our spirit in studying  English Syntax,  we must have high motivation to deepen our understanding in this field of  linguistic study . To lecturer, present some explanation related to the fundamental purpose or primary reason of studying syntax while explaining the discussions material is the best way to arouse student’s curiousity. The more we curious, the more we will be a better learners. 
The more we have an opportunity, the more we have a responsibility (N. Chomsky)
                                                                                                   - kukuh dwi pamuji, 2013-

Bibliography


Chomsky, Noam .1957. Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton.
Liles, Bruce L. 1971. An Introductory Transformational Grammar.
        Englewood.  Cliffs, NJ; Prentice-Hall.

Sabtu, 27 Juli 2013

Speaking On Special Occasions

 


Speech of introduction
Speech of Presentation 
Speech of Acceptance
Speech of Commemoration 
 
Special occasions are the punctuation marks of day to day life, the high points that stand out  above your ordinary routine.
All of this important event or ceremony are very special  to the people who take part in them. In the special occasion, nearly always they are the occasions for speechmaking.
For Example :
1.  A close friend proposes a toast to the bridge and groom.
2. The sales manager presents an award to the sales representative of the year.
3. The football coach gives a speech honoring the team’s most valuable player.
4. A family member delivers a moving eulogy to the deceased.
All of this speeches help give the occasion its “specialness”.
( eulogy : speech praising someone who has died )
Speech for special occasions are different from the speech that we have considered so far in this book. They may convey information or persuade, but that is not the primary purpose.  Rather, the goal of speechmaking in special occasions is to fit the special needs of a special occasion.
In this chapter, we look at the most common special occasions and the kinds of speech appropriate for each.

Speech of introduction
Speech of introduction is a speech to introduce the main speaker to the audience.   
Most of the time, however, a speech of introduction will be neither this brief nor this ritualized. If you are introducing another speaker, the important things that you must notice is
       a. Build enthusiasm for the upcoming speaker.
       b. Build enthusiasm for the speaker’s topic.
       c.  Establish a welcoming climate that will boost the speaker’s credibility.
A good speech of introduction can be a delight to hear and can ease the task of main speaker. There are some guidelines to accomplish the purpose of your introduction speech :
1.     Be Brief.
The purpose of  a speech of introduction is to focus attention on the main speaker, not on the person making the introduction.  So, a speech of introduction will usually be no more than  two to three minutes long and may be shorter if the speaker  is already well known to the audience.
In this speech, the speaker have to avoid making a long-winded introduction.
        2. Make sure your remarks are completely accurate.
Many of introducer has embarrased himself or herself, as well as the speaker,  by garbling basic facts.  So, to avoid this mistake, you must always check with  the speaker to ensure that your introduction is accurate in every respect.
Dont forget, get the speaker’s name , title, etc. right. If the speaker’s name is difficult ( especially if it involves a foreign pronunciation ), practice saying it in advance, in more time.
3. Adapt your remarks to the occasion.
In preparing your introduction, you may be constrained with the nature of the occasion. So you must adapt to the occasion.
Formal occasions require formal speech of introduction.
And then, if you were presenting  a guest speaker at informal business meeting, you might be much more casual than formal banquet.
4. Adapt your remarks to the main speaker.
The purpose of a speech of introduction will be failed if it makes the main speaker feel uncomfortable, no matter how well your speech is received by your audience.
How can you make a main speaker feel uncomfortable?
One way is to overprise the speaker-especially for his/her speaking skills.
Another way to create discomfort is by revealing embarassing details of the speaker’s personal life or by making remarks that are in poor taste.
5.  Adapt your remarks to the Audience
You need to adapt a speech of introduction to the audience you are facing. Your aim is to make your audience want to hear the main speaker. If the speaker is not well known to the audience, you will need to establish her/his credibility by revealing some of the speaker’s main achievements and explaining why she/he  is competent or qualified to speak on the topic at  hand.
Also, you will wanna tell each audience some of the interesting information related to the material that will be delivered by the speaker.
6. Try to create a sense of Anticipation and Drama
In a way of creating a sense of anticipation and drama, you have to save the main speaker’s name for the last. So, you will need to  avoid mentioning the speakers name until the final moment-even when the audience knows exactly whom you are discussing. By doing this, you build a sense of drama, and the speaker’s name comes as the climax of your introduction.

Speech of Presentation
Speech of Presentation  is a speech that presents someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.
Speech of presentation are given when someone receives a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition. Usually, such speech are brief. They may be no more than a mere announcement or be up to four or five minutes in length.
The Purpose :  The main purpose of a speech of presentation is to tell the audience why the recipient is receiving the award.
Point out her or his contribution, achievements, and so forth. Focus on the achievements related to the to the award, and discuss these achievement in a way that will make them meaningful to the audience.
Depending on the audience and the occasion, you may also need to know two other matters in a speech of presentation.
First,  if the audience is not familiar with the award, you should explain it briefly.
Second, if the award was won in a public competition and the audience knows who are the losers are, you might  take a moment to praise the losers
 

Speech of Acceptance

Speech of acceptance is a speech that gives thanks for a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.

An Acceptance speech is written to provide an expression of gratitude for some form of award.

Before you begin crafting your presentation, take a moment to understand the psychology of an award ceremony.

Generally, you are going to find three different groups of people in the audience. The first group is made up of the people who are responsible for giving you and/or your organization the award.  The second  group is composed of the people who helped you achieve the award. Then, the third group includes people who have nothing to do with your award. They typically include spouses and invited guests.
When giving such a speech, you must  thank the people who are bestowing the award and recognize the people who helped you gain it. Your job is to make certain that all of this three groups are acknowledged and rewarded by your comments.
                One quick word of warning. It is not appropriate to brag about why you won the award or tell the audience what you did to overtake your competition. This is a time to be gracious and thankful. You're only goal is make everyone in the audience feel good about themselves and this is how you do it.
The Structure and Outline of a Acceptance Speech
What is a good structure, outline or good guidelines to writing an Acceptance speech?
§  Your Opener - the opening, ice-breaker or attention grabber
1.  The thank you - Thank the organisation who gave the award
Start your presentation by immediately thanking the people who gave you the award.   Make sure you thank them on behalf of all the recipients of the award if it was given to you on behalf of your team or organization.
2. The Competition - speak well of the competition, the people you out-performed.
3.  Share the Glory - Mention the people who supported you
Acknowledge the people in your organization who made it possible for you to win the award. If your team is a small group, ask them to stand and acknowledge them individually while mentioning their specific role in your success. If you are accepting the award on behalf of a large group, ask them to stand and acknowledge them as a group.
       4. Conclusion - Try to end with a memorable punch line.
Close your speech with a moving comment. Your audience will remember you and leave the event with complete confidence that they gave the award to the right person.

Commemorative speech
Commemorative speeches are  speeches of praise or celebration.
Eulogies, 17 August Speech, and dedication.
Your aim in this speech is to pay tribute to a person, a group of people, an institution, or an idea. As in an informative speech, you probably will have to give the audience information about your subject.
The main intention ( fundamental purpose) of commemorative speeches is not to inform your listeners, but to inspire them-in order to arouse and heighten their appreciation of or admiration for the person, institution, or the idea you are praising. After all the audience must know why your subject is praiseworthy.
There are some tips in delivering the speech of commemoration :
1.    Create a ceremonial speech that is short and eloquent. 
                Although you are the primary speaker in the occasion, keep your ceremonial speech short; from one to five minutes long. Because of this brevity, choose ideas and words that will have a dramatic effect.  You may use and utilize figurative and vivid language including metaphor, simile, parallelism, repetition, antithesis,and alliteration-all are appropriate for commemorative speeches.
Some highly acclaimed commemorative speech-including Martin Luther King’s speech ‘I have dream’ and John Kennedy’s inaugural address- are distinguished their creative use of such devices.
 Practice your delivery so that you can convey the appropriate meaning and feeling of your speech by using figurative and vivid language .
Also, use a climactic oganizational pattern and intonation, particularly when concluding the speech.
2.     Adapt your speech to the occasion and the person, place, or event you are
      commemorating.
                Base the content, language, and delivery of your speech upon the nature of the occasion, the personality of the honoree or the character of the event commemorated, and your audience's sentiments.
                For example, if you are commemorating a solemn occasion, use a formal style of language and a serious tone of voice. However, if you are giving an anniversary speech to close friends at a small dinner, use informal language and a more sentimental or whimsical tone.
3.    Consider the emotional needs of your audience and attempt to fulfill these needs with your speech. 
When speaking to commemorate, your succes will depend on your ability to put into language the thoughts and emotions appropriate to the occasion.
   Determine whether your speech should create a festive mood, convey respect for the honoree's accomplishments, allow your audience to grieve, or humor your audience. Use appeals and a style of language that will fulfill these needs. 
Your challenge will be to use language imaginatively to invest the occasion with dignity, meaning and honest emotion.
4.    Unify your audience around emotions and sentiments you commonly share for  the  commemorated. 
    For instance, narrate a personal experience involving the honoree, quote an expression she always uses, or describe one of her everyday activities that depicts a value or characteristic of the honoree with which everyone can empathize.
5.    Do not understate or exaggerate your emotions or praise for the honoree. 
  Avoid overusing cliches or trite statements to reflect your sentiments. Rather, try to express your feelings in a more innovative way. Then, do not exaggerate your praise for the honoree to the point of embarrassing her or making your audience feel uncomfortable.
   So, again, I would say that a commemorative should inspire the  audience, and its success will depend largerly on how well you put into language the thoughts and feelings appropriate to the occasion.

Source :
Lucas, Stephen.2009.The Art of Public Speaking(10th.ed.). New York : McGraw-Hill.

Letteri, R. 1997. A Handbook of Public Speaking(2nd. ed.). New York : Cummings Hathaway Publishers.