Tawangmangu, Karanganyar

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Pagilaran, Batang

Jalan jalan di Kebun teh Pagilaran

Tawangmangu, Karanganyar

Pokoknya asik dah jalan jalan sekitar tw

Tawangmangu, Karanganyar

Segarnya gemercik air pancuran, Tawangmangu

Candi Cetho, Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar

Menyaksikan pemandangan dari depan pintu gerbang candi, sebuah panorama indah perkebunan teh

Candi Cetho, Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar

Menyambangi Candi Cetho, sebuah warisan bersejarah ditengah pegunungan elok nan indah

Candi Sukuh, Karanganyar

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Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar

Menikmati segarnya udara Candi Cetho

Candi Cetho, Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar

Mengunjungi Candi Cetho, sebuah perjalanan menyusuri tempat bersejarah peninggalan manusia masa lalu

Pintu Gerbang Candi Cetho, Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar

Menatap langit di ketinggian, panorama indah Candi Cetho

Selasa, 26 Agustus 2014

TEACHING LANGUAGE SKILLS USING TEXT-BASED APPROACH


 
The Teaching of Writing Using Recount Text

LOGO UNS.jpg

by kukuh dwi pamuji


INTRODUCTION
1. The nature of text
In our everyday life, we are always exposed with and find the term “text”. But, sometimes we do not know what it actually is. Fairclough (2003) said that written and printed texts such as shopping lists and newspaper articles are “texts”, but so also are transcripts of (spoken) conversations and interviews. He stated that text is any actual instance of language in use (p.4). His statement is in line with what Knapp and Watkins (2005) has said, “A text can be any meaning-producing event, be it a book, a film, an advertisement, a phone conversation and so on. It can be seen from two key perspectives: a thing in itself that can be recorded, analysed and discussed; and also a process that is the outcome of a socially produced occasion” (p. 13).
Text should not only be generally assumed as the construction of words and sentences in writing pieces, although this view is not completely inappropriate. For example, the warning “No Smoking” in a gas station, it is also called “text”. It can be interpretated in many ways and gives effects to those who read it . It might  influences people to follow the message conveyed by those who make the warning. So, it can be concluded that text is the system representing one’s thought and intention.
Halliday (1978, 1994) has stated that text simultaniously have ‘ideational’, ‘interpersonal’, and ‘textual’ functions. That is, text represents aspects of the world (the physical world, social world, and mental world) and enact social relations beetwen participants in social events and the attitudes, desires and values of participants ( as cited in Fairclough, 2003, p.27).

2. Goal of the article
The goal of this article is to share ideas on teaching writing using recount text.

3. Limitation
The discussion in this article is only limited in the context of teaching of writing using recount text for students of junior high school (SMP).



THE BODY

1. What is recount text?
Recount text is the text that is used to retell something happened in the past. This text is one of the family of the genre of narrating.
2. Discussion on the chosen text
Anonymous (2012) has stated that recount text is used to relate experiences or retell events for the purpose of informing, entertaining or reflecting.  
There are some types of recounts :
  Personal recount : retelling an activity that the writer has been personally involved in and may be used to build the relationship between the writer and the reader, e.g.  diary journal and personal letter
  Factual recount : reporting the particulars of an incident by reconstructing factual information, e.g. police reconstruction of an accident, historical recount, biographical and autobiographical recounts
 Imaginative recount : applying factual knowledge to an imaginary role in order to  interpret and recount events, e.g. A Day in the Life of a Roman Slave
Barwick, et.al (2011) has said that recounts reconstruct past events in the time order in which they occured. It involves telling what happened and interpreting or evaluating the experience in some way. He then explained in detail the structure and features of recount text as written in the following explanation (p. 4-6):
v Structure of recount text
The recount focuses on a sequence of events relating to a particular activity. It follow three steps :
·      Orientation
The orientation forms the first paragraph of the written recount. This can consist of one sentence but will often consist of at least two or three sentences. The orientation sets the scene and supplies the necessary introduction or background information that is essential to fully understand what will be told by that text. In this part, the writer establishes the time, setting, and who or what is participating. This paragraph describes when the events occured, who was involved, what happened, where the activity or event took place, and sometimes what the reason was for the event.
·      Series of Events
In this part of the recount, the supplying details about the who, what, where and when is explained. This part is aimed at retelling each of the events in detail way, and also hierarchical order. Because the recount is sequenced in time order, students should not start off explaining what happened at the beginning of the day, then skip to the evening and back to the morning again. Instead, they should explain this series of events in detail and sequenced order.
·      Reorientation
This is optional stage and is often used to complete the writing by rounding off the series of events. In this part, the writer sum up what they have experienced, say what they enjoyed and learnt, and might recommend others to do or not to do what he/she did. 
v Language features of recount text
The following is the characteristics of the language that is dominantly used in recount text  :
Language features
Function
Examples
Nouns and Pronouns
To identify the people, animals or things
Mr. Jack, the giant, the police, they, I, the cat, he, the girl, etc.
Noun groups
To build up descriptions
a good-looking girl, the young police inspector , long-distance swimmer,  my lovely bag, a black-and-white sriped vest, our best performances, etc.
Action verbs
To state material processes
she ate, he kicked, the cat jumped, they ran, my girlfriend send, she wrote, etc.
Past tense
To locate events in the speaker’s time (in the past)
he slept, they left, the girl cried, they were walking, she had brought, etc.
Connecting words
To connect one events and the other
firstly, next, later, meanwhile, finally, after that, eventually, etc.
Conjunctions
To join two parts of a sentence or combine clauses
and, or, then, but, so, nor, yet, although,because, since, unless, etc.
Adjectives or adjectival phrases
To describe nouns
luxurious car, beautiful face, cute girl, ancient Museum, handsome boy, etc.
Adverbs and adverbial phrases
To indicate place and time
tomorrow, after breakfast, to the mountain, in my campus, in this week, on Sunday, etc.
Evaluative language is used in factual and personal recounts
Franklin D. Roosevelt was a fair and just man, That was a very excotic place I have ever visited, The trip was a wonderful experience, etc.
This is the example of personal and factual recount text
Personal Recount
Orientation


Event 1


Event 2


Event 3


Event 4


Event 5


Re- Orientation
Yesterday at my school we had an international Day. We had performances, food stalls, displays, raffle ticket draw, and some of us were dressed in costumes.
We started our day off with performances but the one I liked best was the one from fourth grade. We played games. The performance I was in was Labamba.
Straight after our performances we had our lunch. There were food stalls. They came from Australia, Asia, Arab, and Greece.
Everyone had a job. These people were from sixth grade. I did my job after I had lunch. My job was to sell International Day Books.
We had displays in the hall. These displays were good but I didn’t get to see them. The displays came from a lot of countries.
There were also a Trash and Treasure stall where they sold toys. The school got these things by asking the children to bring them in.
           Although I didn’t win anything, International Day was still fun.
                                 (cited in Helena, Anugerahwati, Wachidah , 2004)



 
Adverbs or Adverbial Phrase


 
Simple Past

Conjunctions


 
Noun groups

Nouns or Pronouns
 

Connecting words
 

       Adjectives

Factual Recount
Orientation






Event










Re- Orientation

            A technology company treated more than 200 underprivileged children to a 'high-tech' experience on Children's Day in 1999. They were given training on information technology. The company wanted to provide opportunities for these children to learn more about the Internet and the latest technology.
The children had an enjoyable and educational experience that day. They were exposed to the new technology for the first time and they were very interested. The company hoped to conduct many more such training sessions for these children. They felt that the skills the children had would be useful to them when they grew up.
  The company was very active in caring for the less fortunate. They even put aside one day a year for their employees to do volunteer work to help the needy. They also donated money to many charitable organisations.
  Many people had benefited from their efforts. Many also praised the company for being so generous towards the needy.
      

Adverbs or Adverbial Phrase


 
Simple Past
or Past Perfect


 
Conjunctions


 
Noun groups

Nouns or Pronouns
 

Connecting words
 

       Adjectives

3. Discussion on the teaching of writing using recount text
            This teaching of writing using recount text for students of junior high school is adapting the model of teaching texts (as cited in Helena, Anugerahwati, Wachidah , 2004) consisting four stages :
-          Building  Knowledge of Field
-          Modeling of Text
-          Joint Construction of Text
-          Independent Construction of Text

·        Building Knowledge of Field
This is the stage where teacher introduce students about recount text. In this stage, teacher drives students to focus their attention on the characteristics of recount text in specific way. It involves the introduction about the generic structure and language features of the text. Teacher might give an explanation about what recount text is directly, but it is better to provide them a context.  For example, before introducing students about recount text, teacher might ask, “Have you ever visited the most famous tourist object in this city?”, or “Do you have a very impressive experience in the past that you can not forget?”. This question looks simple, but it is very essential in brainstorming students about what the text is. Also, it leads students to know and understand the use and purpose of this text in implicitly way.
Then, teacher can ask to the students, “So, when you tell about your past experience, what kind of tenses that you use?” etc. This questions is used to lead introducing what kind of tenses that is dominantly used in recount text. In this stage, teacher can give students exercise related to the use of past tense. It is used to recall their memory, and also as a reinforcement. In addition, teacher might also explain that when students want to retell their experiences they should use connecting words, such as firstly, next, later, finally, meanwhile, and so on. Teacher should also gives explanation why it is necessary to use it in recount text.
Besides asking the questions, teacher can use a series of pictures to lead students to discover about the use of recount text. He/she tell that the pictures is depicting the events happened in the past, then ask students to guess what is being told by the pictures. After it, teacher relates the events in the picture with the characteristics of recount text.
For the exercise in this stage, teacher divides the class into two groups and asks students to list their activity in this month (before now) and share it to the other members of the group.
For example :

Activities
Subject
Time
Place
1.
Fishing
Ari
Three days ago
Bengawan solo river
2.
Playing football
Tono
Yesterday
In the schoolyard
.
...
...
...
...
Then, teacher asks each of students to choose five activities from their friends and write each of those activities in a full sentence.
e.g. Yesterday, Tono played football in the schoolyard
·        Modeling of text
In this stage, teacher provides students the examples of recount text used as a model for discovering the characteristics of the text including its generic structure and language features. This stages is used to familiarize students with the text that has been discussed in the previous stages. By exposing students with the examples of the text, they will be more understand about what recount text is.
For the exercise, teacher gives students the example of recount text and asks them to list the activity in the text and analyze its generic structures and language features.
For example :
My Day
I had a terrible day yesterday.
First, I woke up an hour late because my alarm clock didn't go off. Then, I was in such a hurry that I burned my hand when I was making breakfast. After breakfast, I got dressed so quickly that I forgot to wear socks.
Next, I ran out of the house trying to get the 9:30 bus, but of course I missed it. I wanted to take a taxi, but I didn't have enough money.
Finally, I walked the three miles to my school only to discover that it was Sunday!
I hope I never have a day as the one I had yesterday.


Connecting words
and Conjuntions
Events
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
First
because
Then

when
After breakfast

Next
but

but
Finally

The writer woke up an hour late.
his alarm clock didn't go off.
He was in such a hurry.
He burned his hand .
He was making breakfast.
He got dressed so quickly.
He forgot to wear socks.
He ran out of the house trying to get the 9:30 bus.
He missed it.
He wanted to take a taxi.
He didn't have enough money.
He walked the three miles to his/her school.
He realizes that it was Sunday!. He hope he never have a day as the one he had yesterday.

Generic Structure
Recount Text
Language Features
Orientation
Event 1




Event 2


Event 3

Re-orientation
I had a terrible day yesterday.
First, I woke up an hour late because my alarm clock didn't go off. Then, I was in such a hurry that I burned my hand when I was making breakfast. After breakfast, I got dressed so quickly that I forgot to wear socks.
Next, I ran out of the house trying to get the 9:30 bus, but of course I missed it. I wanted to take a taxi, but I didn't have enough money.
Finally, I walked the three miles to my school only to discover that it was Sunday!
 I hope I never have a day as the one I had yesterday.
        Simple Past or
         Past  Continous


 
        Adjectives

        Adverbs
     
        Connecting        words
        Conjuntions


 
         Nouns, noun groups or pronouns 

·        Joint Construction of Text
After they are familiarized by many examples of the text and analyze its generic structure and language features, teacher asks students to practice writing. This is the stage where they start drafting the getting detail information about what they want to write. Teacher asks students to make a group of five, and discuss it together. In this stage, students work by teacher’s assistance. They can ask for teacher’s help if they find any difficulty in drafting the text. The guidance from the teacher is still dominant in this step because this is actually collaborative work of writing between teacher and his/her students.
Each of them is supposed to actively participate in the group discussion in order to fully understand what he/she is doing because in the next stages they should work individually.

This is the example of what they have to do in this stage :
Getting the topic and drafting
1.
Orientation
a.      When : Last week            d. What : Vacation
b.      Who   : I and my family   e. How did I go : by car
c.       Where : Bunaken beach  f. How did I feel : very happy
          Last week, I and my family went to Bunaken beach, the most beautiful beach in this province, for vacation. We went there by car. I was very happy because it was the first time I visited that place.
2.
Event 1
Enjoying the beautiful scenery around the beach
3.
Event 2
Snorkeling and watching the beautiful coral and small fish     
4.
Event 3
Having lunch with appetizing seafood and another food made from coconut                            
5.
Event 4
Visiting historical museum near the beach
6.
Event 5
Buying souvenirs
7.
Re-orientation
Sum up the visit
Say what I enjoyed
         Actually, I was very tired. But, I enjoyed that vacation. I hope I can go to Tawangmangu again because it is very wonderful place to visit.

·        Independent Construction of Text
This is the stage where each of the students practice writing recount text by him/herself. In this stage, they are supposed to work individually. So, they should choose and develop their own topic. The role of the teacher in this stage is not dominant because students have already been familiar and understood about the concept of recount text. But, it does not mean that teacher completely leave their students. Teacher’s assistance is still needed if students find difficulty in practicing writing
This is the example of the activity in this stages :
Actually, students are supposed to choose and develop their own topic. But, if they find difficulty, teacher might help them providing the topic and its outline. Then, it will be developed by the students.
 In the following example, the topic is vacation. The teacher give them a card containing the outline of the activities that they should develop.
Teacher’s Instruction
1.      Now. I will give you a card containing the picture of tourist object and the list of activities (see appendix). Please choose one of them
2.       Okay, everybody has got the card ?
3.       Now, please work in pairs. Your partner is your friend who has got the same card with you. Okay, so you are group 1, 2, 3 ... (pointing each of groups)
4.      Group 1, what is the tourist object that’s in your card?  
And you group 2 ? (and so on).
5.      Imagine that you have visited the tourist object that’s in your card, and you will write your activity/experience in the place that you visited.
6.      Any question, please ?
7.       I will give you thirty minutes to finish your work. After you have finished, you will share your work to your friends. Okay, lets do it.
................ ( 30 minutes)
8.       Okay, time is up. Please share your work to another group,
9.      Please check your friends’ work. Ensure that the mechanic and the puctuation mark is appropriate (and so on).  Any comments about your friends’ work ?
...............

CLOSING
            In the first step of teaching of writing by using recount text for students of junior high school, it is important to build their background knowledge about the characteristics of the text and familiarize and expose them with as many as possible examples so that it will effectively strenghten their understanding about the text. After they have already understood, teacher should assist them to collaboratively work to construct and practice writing. Then, the last, they are supposed to choose their own topic and create their own text.
That is the sequential stage that is necessarily beneficial to be applied in teaching writing. It is aimed at effectively achieving the goal of that process of teaching and learning, to enable students to create their own text independently and appropriately.

Reference

Agustien, H.I.R, Anugerahwati, M., and Wachidah, S. (2004). Materi pelatihan terintegrasi : Mata pelajaran bahasa inggris. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Direktorat Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah, Direktorat Pendidikan Lanjutan Pertama.
Anonymous (June, 2012). Engaging in and exploring recount writing: A practical guides for classroom teachers.Dept. for Education and Child Development (South Australia). Retrieved from http://www.decd.sa.gov.au/northernadelaide/files/links/Recount_Writing_June_2102.pdf.
Barwick, J. et. al (2011). Targeting text : Recount, procedure, exposition - Middle primary.  New South Wales : Blake Education.
Fairclough, N. (2003). Analysing discourse : Textual analysis for social research. New York : Routledge.
Knapp, P. and Watkins, M. (2005). Genre, text, grammar: Technologies for teaching and assessing writing. Sydney : University of New South Wales Press Ltd